网球部的顾问教师波多野结衣

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                November Revolution Part I

                The November Revolution is the revolution that broke out in both countries after the military defeat of Germany and Austria in World War I.

                In the German Reich it began at the end of October / beginning of November 1918 with the mutiny on ships of the deep sea fleet in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel and led, supported by workers ‘and soldiers’ councils, to the elimination of the monarchy (abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918) and on the same day for the proclamation of the republic (by Philipp Scheidemann and Karl Liebknecht), which was justified by the elections to the National Assembly (on January 19, 1919).

                In Austria, a provisional national assembly that met on October 21 proclaimed German Austria to be a republic and part of the German republic on November 12, 1918.

                Germany at the end of the First World War

                According to Behealthybytomorrow, Germany’s defeat in the First World War (1914ĘC1918) plunged the country into a deep crisis. The German army had suffered severe defeats on all fronts. The food situation in the empire was catastrophic after the four years of war. The calls for peace grew louder. The emperor and the entire monarchical system were also called into question towards the end of the war. The revolution in Russia, in which the tsar’s regime was overthrown and replaced by a communist government consisting of workers ‘and soldiers’ councils (soviets), became a model for many, including Germany.

                The revolt of the sailors

                The end of the monarchy in Germany was brought about by the so-called November Revolution of 1918. The trigger was the uprising of the sailors. The Chancellor Max von Baden, appointed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in October 1918, had already initiated armistice negotiations with the victorious powers USA, England and France.

                But in the army leadership there was resistance to a German surrender. Admiral Franz von Hipper, successor to Admiral Franz Scheer, who was appointed Chief of Staff of the newly established Naval War Command, gave the fleet stationed in Kiel and Wilhelmshaven the order to sail. However, the sailors were unwilling to go back into battle in a hopeless situation. Many also sympathized with the Russian revolutionaries. So they refused to obey the order, went on strike and hoisted the red Soviet flag. When the leaders were arrested, the mutiny turned into a revolution. Several thousand sailors demanded the release of their comrades with the slogan “Peace and Bread”. There were exchanges of fire between insurgent soldiers and soldiers who were loyal to orders, many injured and some dead. As a result, soldiers’ councils took power in Kiel barracks based on the Russian model. Workers’ councils were formed in the factories in Kiel. Thus, on the evening of November 4, 1918, Kiel was in the hands of around 40,000 revolting sailors. Soldiers and workers. Revolutionary movements also made themselves felt in other cities of the empire. People took to the streets everywhere. Public life was paralyzed. The soldiers who returned from the war found a home that was completely in disarray. Soldiers and workers. Revolutionary movements also made themselves felt in other cities of the empire. People took to the streets everywhere. Public life was paralyzed. The soldiers who returned from the war found a home that was completely in disarray. Soldiers and workers. Revolutionary movements also made themselves felt in other cities of the empire. People took to the streets everywhere. Public life was paralyzed. The soldiers who returned from the war found a home that was completely in disarray.

                The end of the monarchy

                Kaiser Wilhelm II was determined to master the crisis and maintain his position. But he had little support, either from the military or from leading politicians. Many blamed him for the lost war. Since the emperor became a burden in the difficult situation and there was fear of a socialist revolution by left-wing extremists, Chancellor Max von Baden decided to go it alone. Without informing Wilhelm of this, he distributed a declaration at noon on November 9, 1918, in which the emperor’s abdication was announced. Prior to that, Otto Wels, a member of the SPD Reichstag at the time, had been able to convince the insurgent soldiers in Berlin to join the SPD under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert to connect. As a result, Berlin was in the hands of the Social Democrats.

                Reluctantly, the emperor then left Germany and went into exile in Doorn, the Netherlands. A few weeks later, on November 28th, he announced his official renunciation of the throne. The last German emperor remained in exile in the Netherlands until his death in 1941. The other kings and princes of the German Empire also abdicated under the pressure of the revolutionary events. In Munich, the radical socialist Kurt Eisner proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria on November 7, 1918.

                November Revolution 1

                November Revolution Part I
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